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The Bradford Experiment – The Sacrifice Made for Spiritualism

220px-The_Ogden_Standard-Examiner_-_Ruth_Starkweather_Doran_and_Professor_Thomas_Lynn_Bradford_-_21_February_1921On February 6, 1921, Thomas Lynn Bradford of Detroit, Michigan, sealed off his rented room before blowing out the pilot light on the room’s gas heater. He then turned up the gas jets and quietly laid upon his bed until the gas asphyxiated him. The reason for  Bradford committing suicide was, well, out of this world.
Bradford, who had claimed to be a former electrical engineer, actor and professional athlete, had devoted the last years of his life to spiritualism. Along with marketing himself as a psychic in the Detroit area, he also conducted numerous lectures on the occult.
Though his lectures didn’t appear to be particularly popular, he still produced numerous (and mostly unpublished) essays on different supernatural topics. Not long before his death, Bradford had written that, “all phenomena are outside the realm of the supernatural” and ”that science would eventually prove the existence of the soul and its survival after death” . All of which led to what would be the most radical scientific test of the paranormal ever attempted.

Thomas Bradford was not satisfied with waiting to die a natural death, he decided that committing suicide would allow him to make the needed arrangements to send a message from the other side afterward. Bradford needed to recuit a willing partner so he placed an ad in a local newspaper for “someone interested in the spiritualistic sciences.”.

Thomas received a response back and that was from a women named Ruth Starkweather Doran. A long-time resident of Detroit, Doran would later insist that she had responded to the ad on a whim. She had no previous involvement in the spiritualist movement and denied any strong beliefs about the supernatural or life after death. As a writer and local lecturer, she was still intrigued enough by the ad to agree to meet Bradford to discuss his plan of action.
Doran would later insist that she had no idea that Bradford intended to commit suicide, he put his plan into effect after their final meeting on February 5, 1921. He calmly reassured Doran that he would contact her and gave careful instructions about how to conduct the experiment. After she left, Bradford typed up his final thoughts and put his suicide plan into effect. When Bradford’s body was found soon afterward, police learned Doran’s name and contacted her. In the investigation that followed, Doran emphatically denied that a suicide plan had been in effect (which would have led to her arrest). No evidence of foul play was found and certainly no evidence of a motive for murdering Bradford.
Just days after Thomas Bradford’s death, Ruth Doran, who seemed arranged a gathering of Spiritualists in her home and attempted numerous vigils.  In the days that passed, Ruth Doran made repeated efforts to contact Thomas Bradford with no success. Newspaper reporters covering the strange experiment found Doran brimming with confidence that Bradford would succeed in his plan. “I am his friend,” she told reporters. “If he can cause his spirit to come back to earth, I believe his spirit will come back to me first. I believed in him in life, and I will wait and see if there is any spirit manifestation. If there is such a thing as spirit communication, I believe he will make his presence known to me.”
Ruth Doran and her fellow spiritualists faced serious competition, however. Another psychic, named Lulu Mack made newspaper headlines by claiming that she had successfully contacted Thomas Bradford. According to Mack, who described her as a lifelong theosophist and spiritualist, Bradford was only in the early stages of his spiritual journey and was too weak to be heard by the world. Though his voice would become stronger in the years to come, he would be unable to communicate so soon after his death.
Drawing on theosophical lore in describing Bradford’s progress after death, he was unable to communicate effectively since he had only entered “the first sphere of the heavenly constellation.”. As he progressed from sphere to sphere and was purged of his earthly flaws, Bradford would eventually be able to communicate with other spiritualists. She suggested that he was paying the price for his suicide, which she described as “neither wise nor right.”. Mack also claimed to have had no idea who Bradford was before contacting him during the séance. Just three days after his down however, Lulu Mack claimed to have received a message from him at a séance and hearing his faint voice calling out his own name.

Ruth Doran continued holding séances to try contacting Bradford. She even arranged for other spiritualist groups across the city to join in by forming “concentration parties” to “boost the signal”. On February 12, a week after Bradford’s suicide, Ruth Doran reported hearing Bradford’s voice, which she then relayed for a fellow spiritualist to write down. According to Doran, Thomas Bradford had delivered the following message:

“I am the professor who speaks to you from the Beyond. I have broken through the veil. The help of the living has greatly assisted me. I simply went to sleep. I woke up and at first did not realize that I had passed on. I find no great change apparent. I expected things to be much different. They are not. Human forms are retained in outline but not in the physical. I have not traveled far. I am still much in the darkness. I see many people. They appear natural. There is a lightness of responsibility here unlike in life. One feels full of rapture and happiness. Persons of like natures associate. I am associated with other investigators. I do not repent my act. My present plane is but the first series. I am still investigating the future planes regarding which we in this plane are as ignorant as are earthly beings of the life just beyond human life.”

After dictating this message, Doran fainted after insisting that Bradford’s voice had become too weak to be heard further. When asked whether she was certain that is was Thomas Bradford voice that she heard, she replied,

“I am convinced. I never heard a spirit voice before. That was the professor, without doubt.. “

Unfortunately, Ruth Doran’s account fell somewhat short of the absolute proof of the afterlife that Thomas Bradford had given his life to provide. It probably goes without saying that Bradford’s great experiment did not end up rewriting the science textbooks as he had obviously hoped.

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Chapel of Bones – Portugal

By Charlene Lowe Kemp

Capela dos Ossos, also known as the chapel of Bones, is located next to the church of St. Francis in the medieval Portuguese town of Evora. 

The 16th century chapel is a large room which the walls are filled with the bones of over 5,000 monks. Evora, in the 16th century, had around 43 cemeteries, that took up to much land. The decision was made to destroy some of the cemeteries so the corpses of 5,000 monks was exhumed in a effort to save their souls from condemnation. These bones was sent to Capela dos Ossos. The exisiting monks soon realised that it would be better if they displayed the bones rather than hide them. So they set about creating a place for meditation, a place where the undeniable reminder of death would help people transcend the material world.

When you enter the chapel you will see the words

“Nos ossos que aqui estamos, pelos vossos esperamos.” 

“We, the bones that are here await yours.”

Wrote on the door, a reminder that death happens to everyone giving people the perspective before they enter the chapel to prey. 

The corpse of a women and a child hang from a wall, no body knows who they are but legend has it that a powerful man had onced cursed them. They was refused burial in the local cemeteries so the corpses received shelter from the chapel.

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City of the Dead, Ossetia, Russia


Dargavs in the city of the dead near Vladikavnas. The 44 beehive shaped tombs, some resembling boats, have been mostly restored and some still hold human remains in various stages of decay.

By Charlene Lowe Kemp

The village of Dargavs, often referred to as the city of the dead,  is considered to be one of the most mysterious sites in Russia. Hidden away in one of the five mountains in the Caucasus mountains, the “city” is actually an ancient necropolis full of tombs or crypts.  The people who lived here, buried their loved ones with their belongings on this site for reasons that have been lost in the passage of time.

There are many myths and legends that surround the site and in the past the local people have refused to go here out of fear that they would not come out alive. The first mention of the City of the Dead dates back to the beginning of the 14th Century (but some sources say the oldest of the crypts dates back to the 12th century).


In each crypt human skulls and bones have been found. Interestingly, it was discovered that the bodies inside the crypts were buried in wooden structures resembling boats.
Though there are no rivers nearby the village, it is thought they did this as it was thought that the soul of the dead one had to cross a wide river after death.

Another interesting fact is that there are wells positioned in front of each crypt, into which family members would throw a coin in the hopes that if the coin hit a stone, it was said to be a good sign and the dead family member would make it to heaven.

It is believed that plague victims may have been brought here at one point. In the 18th century, according to one legend, a plague swept through Ossetia, wiping out 90 percent of the surrounding population. The clans built quarantine houses to isolate themselves from the village, patiently awaiting their death. When they died, their corpses were left to rot inside these huts.